These funds are all highly innovative in their design, using new financial tools such as outcomes-based payments or registering as carbon-offset projects to increase funding. But they therefore tend to be unscalable. Because they are incredibly new, the up-front cost of research and time on the ground meeting with various stakeholders tends to be paid for by NGOs or multilateral organizations — such as the World Bank in the case of the Seychelles blue bond.
They want something where there can be a level of certainty that results will be delivered in a few months. He also points to the forestry carbon bond that BAML co-arranged in as a structure to be explored further.
Much larger sums of investment money need to be moved, but without being able to show large investors their natural capital-risk exposure or biodiversity footprint, it is challenging to motivate them. One way may be big deals in formats large investors are already comfortable with — green bonds, for example. And it is as plain vanilla as you can get — a year bond with a 3. Goldman Sachs is the bookrunner. Proceeds are being used to increase the scale of the Working Forest Fund, which invests in sustainable forestry and protecting natural ecosystems through the permanent conservation of at-risk working forests.
The proceeds will help fund in its long-term plan to conserve five million acres of forests in the US over 15 years. However, it will be hard to replicate the bond because The Conservation Fund is a unique organization. But he adds that there is a lot that could be learned from the bond, given it has brought conservation into the green bond realm.
Green bonds have tended to be the domain of clean energy. Gilbert says he hopes the green bond market will adopt more deals that deliver clear environmental and economic outcomes at scale. The nascent transition bond market could also serve to move bigger chunks of funding through the large-scale transitioning of land use away from unsustainable to sustainable, or even regenerative, practices. Its proceeds are being used to buy beef from cattle ranchers who comply with non-deforestation criteria. Together these deals show that the financial markets can be used to change behaviour towards conserving nature, as well as to finance companies that are transitioning supply chains.
Marisa Drew, chief executive of the impact advisory and finance department at Credit Suisse, says this is where the large-scale change will be. Where we as a financial industry can play a role is by helping them do that. Drew says it may require a form of blended finance whereby the private sector steps in at the end. We have to be open to it all. Indeed, it is clear that it is going to take the collaboration of the private sector, scientists, academics and the public sector to truly get private capital moving.
Many bankers interviewed for this article that were yet to be involved in any conservation-specific deals say that the incentives are just too small to build teams committed to small-scale transactions. We have to crack natural capital valuations and build them into the entire market. And so it comes full circle. To move large-scale financing towards protecting and restoring natural resources, financial institutions need to be able to put a price on nature so they can begin to understand the risk and opportunity that nature-related investments hold.
Or they need governments and central banks to offer them support and incentives to start lending to or investing in companies and projects that themselves support conservation. As yet, very few banks have stepped forward to lead the way. There are others joining it, but for the most part the focus has been clean energy and carbon because it has been an easier nut to crack. It means no one wants to go against the tide, least of all in the financial industry.
But we have been slow to recognize exactly how volatile the world is about to get. Use your influence as a portfolio manager, as a boss, as a banker to push for behaviour change directed to saving our planet — that includes your clients. Work with NGOs. Demand policy change. Work with others. Be useful. There is perhaps no one better than Thomas Lovejoy to sum up the urgency of what is required from bankers, investors, finance ministers and central bank governors. A conservation ecologist who began working in the Brazilian Amazon in the s, Lovejoy has served as director of conservation for WWF-US where he originated the idea of debt-for-nature swaps and went on to be the chief biodiversity adviser to the World Bank.
Today Lovejoy is a senior fellow of the United Nations Foundation. He advises foundation leaders on biodiversity and environmental science, and is a professor at George Mason University. We are in the initial stages of a human-driven crisis, the likes of which has not been experienced in the history of life on Earth and which is neither necessary nor inevitable.
We need to wake up to the peril and the promise — and lift our eyes above our immediate surroundings and self-interests to scope out the path to sustainability for humans and all forms of life.
The risks are multiple and varied, from precipitous declines in economic growth to the uncertain future of our species. How can financial institutions best be of service? By examining their balance-sheet exposure to nature-related risks and by channelling finance to businesses and projects that are restoring natural resources. They have the full support of the scientific community. It was certainly not an afterthought, however. Finance is key, insists Ruckelshaus. Trillion-dollar free lunch Along with Barbier and Sukhdev, Andrew Mitchell is a long-time proponent of putting a price on nature.
Andrew Mitchell, Global Canopy The work was designed to support the Natural Capital Declaration announced at the Rio Earth Summit in — a commitment by leaders in finance to say they would start to include natural capital commitments in their investments and lending. Mitchell points out that banks are heavily exposed to water through agricultural finance. That someone is unlikely to be the consumer in the near term. Companies have not figured out how species and ecosystem loss and environmental degradation impacts their bottom line.
Includes three sections for the United States, China, and global based industry reports. Data files are compressed and software such as 7-Zip is required to unzip them. Contains information on over million companies worldwide, both private and public. Data is standardized for easy cross-border comparisons. Includes companies' financial accounts, credit scores from a number of independent providers, directorships, ownership structures, and details of mergers and acquisitions activity.
Requires registration. Available to currently enrolled UCB students, faculty, and staff. Provides access to facts on media, business, politics, and other areas. Sources of information include market research reports, trade publications, scientific journals, and government sources.
Data may be downloaded into spreadsheets and presentations. Includes substantive industry reports. International statistical data on industries and mining from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. AID Data. Includes data visualization tools, articles on development aid and geo-coded data sets at the project level. Educational attainment data for countries in 5-year intervals from to It also provides information about the distribution of educational attainment of the adult population over age 15 and 25 by sex by levels of schooling.
From the International Aid Transparency Initiative. Comprehensive open source data from hundreds of national governments, NGOs and multilateral organizations. Data on agriculture, food supply, food security, prices, commodities, forest products, and fisheries from the FAO. International Debt Statistics. Statistical data for countries reporting public debt to the World Bank.
Human Development Report Statistics. New Gilded Age: Income inequality in the U.
National Accounts: Financial Accounts: Financial balance sheets - consolidated
Go to the data set. Leading International Organization for Foreign Aid data. Replication Data Wiki. Serves as a database of empirical studies, the availability of replication material for them and of replication studies. Includes international commodity price data. Explore trends and patterns in international production through the analysis of global value chains GVCs , i.
UN Data. Wide range of economic, social, cultural, and demographic indicators: population, environment, health, economics, technology, trade, refugees, and more. Bureau of Economic Analysis. International Investment Position. Detailed data on foreign direct investment involving the United States. Loans and grants from the US government each fiscal year by purpose and country. World Development Indicators. World Income Inequality Database. From United Nations University. World Inequality Database. Measures of wealth, income, income inequality, and wealth inequality for countries around the world.
Cross-National Time-Series. Statistical information on a range of countries, with data entries ranging from to the present. It offers a comprehensive extent of variables and country facts. Available on workstation 1 in the Doe Library Data Lab. Wide range of historical data sets from the Economic History Association: global financial data, wages, bond trading, early securities prices, developing country exports, historical labor statistics, and much more.
European State Finance Database. International collaborative research project for the collection, archiving and dissemination of data on European fiscal history across the medieval, early modern and modern periods. Scanned U. Global Financial Data. Long runs of historical data on U. Global Commodity Database. Data is from approximately to Global Price and Income History Group.
Prices, wages, income, and measures of economic well-being for countries and cities around the world before Focuses primarily on the middle ages. Comprises 25 real and nominal variables. Historical Annual Reports. Includes over companies' annual reports available as searchable pdf images. Includes financial data, Fortune ranking, industry classification, key people, geographic location, and more, from to present.
Geo-coded records of millions of US businesses with basic information on each entity, such as contact information, industry, revenues, employees, and other data annually from From the Minnesota Population Center. Microdata for censuses from the United States back to as well as other nations. League of Nations Statistical Yearbooks. From Northwestern University. Digital League of Nations statistical yearbooks from Includes data on population, commerce, public finance, currency, production, prices and more.
Maddison Project Database.
Project by a group of colleagues of Angus Maddison, with the aim to continue Maddison's work on measuring long-term economic performance for different regions, time periods and subtopics. NBER Data. Enormous collection of historical data: macroeconomics, history, international trade and finance, healthcare, finance, more. Statistical Abstracts of the United States. The Census Bureau has volumes from The St. Total Economy Database. From the Conference Board.
Annual data covering GDP, population, employment, hours, labor quality, capital services, labor productivity, and total factor productivity for over countries in the world. Historical Bilateral Trade and Gravity Data set with more than 1. The dataset is used to estimate the evolution of trade costs over two centuries. United Nations Statistical Yearbook. International country data covering the areas of population, labor supply, agriculture, forestry, construction, consumption, transportation, education and trade from Umbrella organization for social science data across Europe.
Cross National Data Center, Luxembourg. Consortium of institutions working to acquire and preserve social science data. Micro-data for censuses from the United States back to as well as other nations. Living Standards Measurement Surveys. From the World Bank. Data on multiple indicators of household well-being, useful for assessing household behavior and evaluating the effect of government policies on living conditions. Measure DHS.
Some data is also available on IPUMs. National Longitudinal Study of Youth. Data on labor markets, schooling, fertility, program participation, health, and more. Roper Center for Public Opinion Research. Contains domestic and international survey data. Some of the sources listed are restricted to Princeton University but many are also freely available or also licensed by UC Berkeley. This six-monthly publication contains a large database, now accessible within OECD.
Stat, with annual and quarterly macroeconomic data for each of the OECD countries plus selected other countries or groups. There are nearly variables, which you can easily select from a pull-down menu. You can also customise them by country and year and export them to Excel or other formats. The data go back at least 20 years and in many cases back to There are also forecasts for at least one year ahead.
The Statistical Annex contains 63 tables already in Excel format to download as eight separate files: Statistical Annex. Although the complete publication is available only by subscription, some of the key data can be found at: Statistics related to the MEI. Stat This section of the site contains various datasets classified under a number of headings, such as Development, Economic Projections, Labour and National Accounts. You can customise the datasets by series, countries and years. The World Bank site contains a vast database of economic, social and other development statistics for all countries of the world.
Although much of the data on the site is available only by subscription, the following link takes you to quite a large selection of open-access data, which you can search by country, topic and indicator: Open data. You can download the reports for each year from the following: World Development Reports. You will first need to register. This is free. Details are given on the site. These give key indicators of the economy, environment, external debt, etc. There is a separate page for each country or group. This gives country-by-country economic and financial data for the Group of 20 G20 countries.
Principal Global Indicators. The World Bank provides a number of data portals which provide data dashboards on various topics as well as access to all the underlying data through visualization and sharing applications. Data portals and tools. The World Bank has also developed a 'Visualizer' that can be used to compare indicators over time. Visualizers are available for a number of topics. For example, the following links to the visualizer on trade with some available indicators. World Bank Trade Visualizer. Country reports for all countries of the world can be found via the following link: Country Information.
Each of these has a large statistical annex and can be accessed via the following link. Data and Statistics. A number of additional IMF datasets are available for free access on the IMF Data site, including data on international reserves, investment, financial soundness and financial access. These can be searched by country, topic and data source.
IMF data. The statistics section of the WTO site contains a number of databases and publications providing extensive access to trade and tariff data.
Trade and tariff data. There are several parts to the site. These include: data on Merchandise trade ; C ommercial services ; Tariffs ; and a relatively new section, Global value chains , which measures and analyses trade in value added. These is also a searchable database for various time series data. These include data on merchandise and commercial services trade. Time Series data. From this part of the site you can also access trade profiles of individual countries at: Trade profiles. This "offers a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade, covering the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial service".
For the latest volume see: World Trade Statistical Review series. This contains data on international trade, foreign direct investment FDI , commodity prices, economic trends, population and labour, external financial resources and maritime transport. Annex Tables. The Bank for International Settlements is "an international organisation which fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
From the hub part of the site you can access the websites of each of the world's central banks. Central bank websites. Central Bank Research Hub. There is also a substantial statistical section. It is the best source for data on nominal and real exchange rate indices. It uses narrow indices comprising 26 and 27 economies for the nominal and real indices, respectively with data going back to , and broad indices comprising 61 economies with data going back to In each case data are available in Excel format. Alternatively you can download all the files as a single CSV file.
The statistical section also has data on cross-border lending and borrowing of banks: Locational banking statistics. It also has data on securities and derivatives.
China Export Statistics 2018
Also, every three years BIS conducts a global central bank survey of activity in the foreign exchange market. The results of the April survey were released in December You can also find details of the payments systems in each country, including data on money supply, total bank notes and coin issued, data on banks and other financial institutions including branches and value of accounts, cards issued, ATMs, transactions per type of payment instrument, number and value of securities and derivatives trades and many other indicators: Statistics on payment and settlement systems.
Use the pull-down menu to select an economy: Additional Data Sources. As well as profiles of individual countries including their maps and flags, you can browse the data by topic, including education, economy, crime, mortality or health. The site offers a facility to create correlation reports and scatter-plots on the fly. From the left-hand column on the home page you can select profiles for individual countries and country groups or data under more than categories. From the central column on the home page, under 'Tables, graphs, maps and pie charts', you can choose a category.
Under 'Country facts and stats' you can choose both a country and a category. Under Compare any two, you can choose any two countries and compare them in terms of any selected indicator. The following link takes you to Gapminder World. Note that you will need Flash installed on your computer to run Gapminder. The link takes you to the default view, which is Chart View , where you can choose which indicator to put on each axis by clicking on each axis in turn and selecting from the drop-down list.
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Each country is represented by a bubble, whose colour varies by continent. The default is all countries, but you can select just one or more countries from a list on the right. The non-selected countries appear in faded colour. You can use a slider to fade them out completely if you prefer. You can also track the path of your selected countries over time if you choose. An alternative view is the Map view click on Bubbles link at top left of screen. Each country bubble is positioned on a world map. The size of the bubble gives one indicator. A second indicator can be shown by colour gradation of the bubbles.
Again, you can select individual countries from the menu on the right. Other views include Income, Trends, Ranks, Ages and Spreadsheet again click on the menu at top left of screen. The site also has a range of videos which examine specific data. Gapminder videos. If you don't mind that this information comes courtesy of the CIA, this is a very useful site, giving a host of economic and other data, country-by-country. Simply select a country from the drop-down menu near the top of the page: 'Select a country or location'. The World Factbook. Alternatively, you can compare countries by indicator.
There are 76 indicators from which to choose, including more than 30 economic indicators. When you select an indicator, countries are arranged in descending order except for inflation and unemployment rates, where countries are arranged in ascending order. Country Comparisons. IndexMundi contains detailed country statistics, charts, and maps compiled from multiple sources. You can explore and analyse thousands of indicators organised by region, country, topic, industry sector, and type.
World and continent maps showing colour-coded information and data tables by country for 44 separate indicators use the drop-down menus : World maps by indicator. Bar charts with figures for ranking countries for a range of indicators: Country comparison charts. Times series charts and tables that allow you to compare up to four countries using up to ten indicators: Historical data graphs.
Correlation scatter charts plus table that allow you to compare two indicators for all countries for a selected year: Correlation charts.
Malaysia Fruit Export Statistics
Federal Reserve Economic Data. The EconomyWatch site includes news and country briefings under various headings: Economic conditions International trade Monetary policy. Penn World Table 9. Feenstra, Robert Inklaar and Marcel P. It is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering countries between and Data may be opened in Excel or Stata. There is also a comprehensive User Guide. The site , taken over by Qlik provides a consistent means of searching, comparing, visualising and downloading quantitative data from a wide variety of international sources.
Any data that are open and free from the source site are still available free on the DataMarket site — some million time-series from about 16 thousand data sets. This site captures international data from a number of sources and presents them in a common space, visualizing figures, applying analytical functions, creating a set of dashboards and presenting the outcome.
Home page. For example, under Economics, you can access a range of economic indicators by country. You can use the data atlas to search for data by date, name, topic or source. Data atlas. The Conference Board, founded in , is an independent non-profit global organisation. Its aim is 'to help leaders navigate the biggest issues impacting business and better serve society'. Amongst other activities, it provides a range of international data. On the site you will also find a Total Economy Database, which provides annual data covering GDP, population, employment, hours, labour quality, capital services, labour productivity and total factor productivity for countries in the world.
Total Economy Database. Vizala contains country-level data for countries. Each of these is then divided into sub-categories, giving a total of more than sub-categories. In each of the sub-categories you can select from a number of groups of indicators. You can filter by country group and country.