Work towards long musical lines rather than small gestures. There are mostly terraced dynamics, only two crescendos, and no decrescendos. Work on the soft dynamic and do not play everything loud. Notice that the accents are all in the piano dynamic, so use a little extra air and keep the tongue light on these special notes. The alternate F-sharp fingering using the RH pinky front F-sharp in mm. Give the tenor clef section in mm. Breathing is a challenge from mm. Get a big breath in m.
If needed, I suggest breathing after the low D in m. A small ritard in the last beat of m. Errata: Performance Guide: There is a lot of room for interpretation and rubato in this etude which is a lyric study in playing various ornaments. This is a chance to sing through your bassoon. The first style indication is cantabile.
You will start in m. Ornaments: Your Weissenborn has a good discussion on how to perform ornaments, starting on pg. Trill LH left hand 3 ring finger in m. Watch out for the low tenor clef in m. Take a good breath after the low F in m. A ritard in m. The opening of this etude is reminiscent of the Overture to the Marriage of Figaro by W.
Mozart with 1 much crossing of the break and 2 the C-sharp to A interval in both piano and forte dynamics. Keep the opening in a quiet dynamic, carefully following the written dynamics. There are only two dynamics in this etude, piano and forte, plus crescendos. This is a great chance to develop your soft playing and explore dynamic contrasts. Practice this opening in small four to five note sections with mixed rhythms using both soft and loud dynamics. Then slowly weave these smaller pieces together. Notice the differences in articulations: slurred staccato as in m. Notice the rinforzando accents an accent without the suddenness of a sforzando in mm.
Errata: Play from beginning through m. Originally this errata stated to lower certain notes an octave. That has now been removed. Performance Guide: Dynamic and style changes are critical to a successful musical performance of this etude. The melodic, rhythmic, and articulation styles are playful and light with a nice opportunity to feature the range and tone quality of the contra. Add a small ritard at the end of m. The page numbers are correct in this edition.
There is a little confusion because of some other printings. Other editions may not have etudes on the same page numbers because of font choice or other reasons. Updated August 2. Please note that the slowest tempo parameter for this etude has been changed. Performance Guide: When preparing this etude take care to be consistent in the application of the articulations.
Be sure to maintain this smooth approach with all slur groups in the etude. There should be enough support for them to speak easily and resonate. Do not play so soft that the horn will not respond. Pay attention to the accents in mm. The eighth notes at the end of m. All staccato notes should be treated with light style of tonguing. Do not let tonguing overpower tone.
As always, be careful of where to take breaths. Do not disrupt slurs or phrase points. Think carefully about where the optimal places are to take a breath that maintains the integrity of the music. Look for places to add appropriate dynamics to enhance the etude. Performance Guide: This is a very expressive etude that offers a wonderful combination of technical and lyrical challenges. It is important to realize that even though the eighth note gets the beat, do not allow yourself to go too fast or too slow.
Please stay within the recommended tempos. Too fast or too slow and the expressiveness is lost. The advanced musician will make use of the dynamics indicated to show off their control of the instrument in all ranges. Staccato notes should be treated with a light approach, while all slurred passages should be smooth. When playing the arpeggios such as in m. Take great care in determining where to release a note in order to take a breath. Do not interrupt a slur or disrupt a phrase without consideration of how it affects the overall musical effect. Performance Guide: This etude is built around the various arpeggiated figures associated with the key of F.
It would be a great training exercise for the player to work on arpeggios in preparation for this study. The Bis Bb fingering will be preferred in almost all instances, however, m. Take great care in preparing for the octave jumps in m. It will be difficult to make the instrument speak the interval unless the player provides sufficient support by pushing the air and keeping the embouchure firm to make the jump.
The second half of the etude provides a mixture of different articulations and slur patterns. Make sure the staccato passages are tongued lightly. There are only 3 dynamic markings in this etude so please look for places to enhance the musical effect by finding appropriate spots for dynamic contrast. Errata: There are two versions of this etude on the page - play the first one in the key of E-flat concert The last two beats of m. The first beat of m.
As you navigate the intervals of the opening, it is important to be sure that your sound is just as bold on the low E in m. Practice this interval carefully and build up to it over time. Note the dynamic changes throughout, especially the contrasting dynamics in m. Remember, just as consistency of sound is essential in all registers, the same is required at all dynamic levels. Rhythmic accuracy is vital, especially with the triplets and dotted-eighth sixteenths.
Take care not to allow the triplets influence the performance of the dotted rhythms. Practicing with subdivisions will always help ensure that sixteenth notes are properly placed. Take the time to plan your approach during trills and know exactly how many alternations you will place in each. Consider ending the trill in m. All grace notes should be performed before the next beat, not on it. Consider your choice of tempo carefully. This etude could lure the performer into too fast a tempo or speeding up over time.
The indication of Maestoso is much more important that the overall tempo you choose. Perform this work as stately and majestically as you can while maintaining a steady pulse. Performance Guide: This beautiful etude provides the performer an opportunity to be expressive throughout the entire range of the instrument and at all dynamic levels.
Work to create as much contrast as possible between forte and piano, especially following the climax of m.
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Use these dynamic changes as a way to tell a compelling story! Knowing your approach during trilled passages will be key. Take the time to plan exactly how many alternations you will place in trill keeping in mind that trills should end on the principal note. All grace notes in this etude are best placed before the next pulse. Breath marks indicate a lift and an opportunity to take a breath, but be careful not to clip the ends of your phrases. Taper any notes before a breath in a beautiful way. Practice taking full breaths quickly.
This will aid you in all styles of playing and allow your performances to have uninterrupted natural sounding phrases. Choose a starting tempo carefully and keep the faster passages with 32nd notes in mind when you begin. Starting too fast may make the latter portions of this etude more difficult or force you to slow down in your performance. No repeats. Play second endings only. Performance Guide: No repeats. This is a lively etude full of rhythmic and dynamic variety that navigates the entire range of the instrument.
Take care to perform as rhythmically precise as possible. With sixteenths, dotted rhythms, and triplets, careful subdivision is required. Work to keep all dotted rhythms from being influenced by triplet subdivisions. Note the dynamic changes at the start of many sections and the indicated crescendos throughout. Strive to have as much contrast as possible from louder to softer dynamics and allow this dynamic palate to create as much drama and storytelling as possible.
Pay close attention to the timing and placing of the rests throughout this entire work. It is a common error to rush or speed up through these moments. Stay steady. Careful practice with a metronome will help ensure that the performer is exact with regard to pulse and time. Another helpful practice tip is to record a performance and listen back.
Can you clap or conduct a steady beat along with your recorded performance? Use these recordings as an opportunity to learn about your tendencies and make adjustments. Errata: Be aware that all notes that are beamed in groups of 6 are indeed sextuplets. Also, the last three notes in M. Beat 2 should be tied to beat 3 in measures 3, 9, and The first two notes in measure 11 F to G should be slurred. Performance Guide: This etude is best performed with energy and fiery passion. Avoid confusing "con forza" with "add tension.
Avoid the pitfall of slowing accidentally by keeping forward motion on the dotted eighth sixteenth notes, especially from mm. Be very expressive in the minor section, bars , without slowing down. Take full advantage of the forte, major section m. The performer may choose hold back tempo slightly to add drama to mm. Errata: Performance Guide: This is a beautiful etude, showcasing the horn's tone quality, lyricism and low range.
Some of the phrases are long, therefore a faster tempo is recommended in order to make the phrase in one breath. The bass clef measures are written in "Old Notation" and should be played as if written an octave higher. For intonation purposes, use B-flat fingering for the low E-flat, D, and C-sharp as in m. In this case it would be T-1, T, T A general embouchure tip for low range is to drop the jaw down and bring it forward. Articulate the portato sixteenth notes in m. The rhythm and notes for the turns in m.
In MM. Add staccatissimo marks to the downbeats of mm. Add a staccato mark to the downbeat of m. Performance Guide: This etude calls for flexibility and accuracy from the player. The "con grazia" feel should prevail over tempo. Keep tempo steady in the sections with large leaps and strive to play high and low notes the same volume.
Articulation specificity is key, and one would do well to interpret the staccato marks as "lighter, separate" than simply "shorter. Errata: In M. In the last measure, play the lower octave on the split. Note: the low D in m. Make use of the written articulations and dynamic markings as a guide for nuance, expressive phrasing, and appropriate rubato. The high B in m. Note that the high B tunes in a lowered 2nd position.
Players will need to be sure to adjust the tuning for the B, the A, and the G as they will each tune in a slightly different 2nd position. The descending G major arpeggiatic pattern in mm. However, it is critical to make appropriate micro-adjustments in tuning. Note: The third section, mm. Errata: Measure change the B on the 4th eighth note beat the first note of the second rhythmic figure to a low E on the first ledger line below the staff.
Performance Guide: C-sharp minor is a friendly key for the trombone.
The slide movement through scale patterns and arpeggios is smooth and physically efficient. The key also fits uniquely within the trombones practical range which allows for maximum melodic content. Blazhevich beautifully utilizes these qualities in Etude 86 by showcasing the full range and expressive potential of the trombone. This etude contains a wealth of musical expression, and players will need to navigate a complex relationship between melody, rhythm, and phrasing.
The melody lies within a rhythmic framework of syncopation that often places the melodic weight on either the 3rd or 6th eighth-note of the measure, offset from the stronger pulses on the 1st and 4th eighth-notes. A fast tempo is not a hallmark of this music. Keep the performance tempo near the indicated 96 bpm, and work for beauty, sustain, and phrasing. The con anima in m. Players should try to achieve the con anima feel through a liberal use of expressive phrasing and a broad dynamic range. Players should use a metronome with subdivided eighth-notes from the very first reading.
Once rhythmic accuracy is confident and exact, players will then need to incorporate the use of appropriate, yet expressive rubato. For example, add an organic tapering of the tempo in the cadential figures at m. Also, adding a very subtle accelerando in the arpeggios at the beginnings of phrases can help to provide the con anima feel. Even more critically, the arpeggios function as harmony to drive the melodic line. Each note should be intoned smoothly with controlled pitch and your absolute best and most consistent tone quality. Practice the arpeggios slowly.
Work for beauty, sustain, control, and pitch. Measures are likely the most technically demanding of the etude—difficult, but not impossible, It is critical to make intervallic leaps such as these part of your everyday warm-up and fundamental training. Focus on the flow of sound through each pitch. One could imagine how a great cellist could perform this music with perfect beauty and free of any technical issues. Work for that! Russian music is highly expressive, so performing this type of music in strict time without flow or dynamics shaping will give the music a sterile and flat sound.
Conversely, overdoing the rubato and being haphazard with time will give the music a contrived and insincere feel. Players who perform the music with beauty of tone as the priority, with proper timing and phrasing, and with a full expressive range of dynamics will be in strong contention for advancement throughout the TMEA audition process. Note: measure 28, the B on the 4th eighth note beat the first note of the second rhythmic figure should be a low E on the first ledger line below the staff.
Errata: In measure 29, all the notes that are notated as an A are actually A-flat. Performance Guide: This etude uses several contrasting stylistic selections and offers players opportunities for interpretive decision-making throughout. Of primary consideration for a performance of this etude that leads to advancement in the TMEA auditions, will be accuracy in rhythm and in time, as well as consistency in articulation and diction. Players should begin learning the music with very slow tempo using a metronome with subdivisions to ensure proper rhythmic placement and stylistic consistency.
The opening pesante should be performed with a bold yet controlled forte dynamic based on a strong dotted-quarter note pulse. The three-notes in this rhythmic figure are each played quite differently, so careful attention should be given to learning how each note is played.
Catalog Record: 32 etudes for clarinet | HathiTrust Digital Library
The first note of the figure dotted-eighth should be well-accented with sustain and breadth. The third note of the figure eighth should be non-accented, lifted, and resonant not clipped. Emphasize the rhythm change by keeping the accent over the dotted-eighth note. The Con Moto in mm. Pay close attention to the articulations, but maintain a sustained sound throughout the phrase. The eighth rest in m. Practice taking the breath by playing mm. The section in mm.
Keep the volume low then follow the crescendo in mm. Play with projection, but just be mindful of maintaining good pitch and strict tempo to the last note. Students should choose a performance tempo carefully. The recommended tempo range gives flexibility for the player to choose a suitable tempo that maintains the character of the etude. The slide position of the note is marked correctly 5 , but the accidental is not printed next to the note.
The last note of M. Performance Guide: Etude No. I would encourage each student to map out the many different combinations we have available to us and to try each one of them out carefully at various speeds. There may be some instances in which we choose to play notes in different positions even within the same phrase.
The ability to match tone quality and pitch regardless of the position or valve being used is an essential skill that must be routinely practiced. While there are many suggestions included in the book, please take the opportunity to implore your own ideas of what combinations work best for you. In regards to musical style, I like to think of this etude as having a light and agile sound with a full mezzo-forte dynamic throughout, while also implying natural musicianly shapes to each phrase. Young trombonists will experience the most success with this etude by dissecting each phrase and technical challenge slowly and methodically with the goal in mind of assembling the etude back together once each phrase can be played successfully.
Errata: Performance Guide: Etude No. Musically, there are several section of the etude that remind me of playing the 'Sarabande' movements in the Bach Cello Suites. Listen to and study professional recordings of cellists Pablo Casals is a personal favorite to better understand musical nuance and phrasing in this style of music. When performing music like this, it is important to not let any notes dramatically stick out due to the range that they are written in or the note they are coming from.
It is a useful trick on trombone to lightly articulate when ascending through a slur to avoid both a smeary sound, or response issues creating a gap in the sound. In my lessons with bass trombonist Charlie Vernon, we often sat and talked about the "Death of TWA" bad transitions and perfecting idea of music is simply one beautiful sound followed by another beautiful sound, with absolutely nothing in between.
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In other words, beautiful singing sounds with perfect transitions. Students should feel at liberty to stress individual notes and add dynamic shapes while remaining true to the idea of long, singing, natural phrases, and avoiding dramatic changes that would distract the listener rather than intrigue them. Many of the alternate slide positions printed are not my personal choices, students should feel at liberty to use the best options for them based on preference, experience, and the instrument they are performing on.
I like to imagine that this etude is felt similarly to a waltz, with a natural emphasis on beat 1 while beats 2 and 3 flow back towards beat 1, as if the music is constantly flowing in a circle. Many young musicians may try to play this in a clunky, robot-like fashion. The most successful musicians will perform this etude with fluid phrases and sounds that flow easily from one note to the next. While the notes will not be slurred or smeared, they should also not be staccato.
Play each note with a full, resonant tone to achieve the correct note shape. In regards to dynamics, I would suggest performing with a wide array of shapes that enhance the musical line. When shaping music, take care to ensure that your shapes are not dramatic or overdone, be tasteful. Errata: Play beginning to m. Updated August 17, PM.
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This is an update from an earlier correction on this same day. It had previously stated the A natural should be on beat 2.
It is beat 3, not beat 2. Rhythms should be very precise and the tempo very strict in keeping with the dance-like style of the piece. Be especially careful that the sixteenth note triplets represent three notes evenly spaced over half a beat. Staccato notes should be bouncy but not too short, and accents should be observed with weight of breath, not with a harder tongue. At the indicated tempos, the grace notes will be very quick and will take time away from the previous beat: all of the notes in any given measure should be in the same place with or without the grace notes.
Observe dynamics and work to shape each phrase with a particular dynamic direction. There should be no tempo change at the trio, but be careful to observe the change of key. Above all, make sure this etude dances! Errata: Sforzando in m. Be sure that you can fluently play the B major scale in all registers before you begin work on this etude. One euphonium specific recommendation is to be sure to play the opening D-sharp in tune. This is a very sharp note on some euphoniums and can make the subsequent notes sound out of tune if not played correctly.
Alternate fingerings of or on compensating euphoniums only can help tame this sometimes problematic note. Play in a flowing, song-like style, paying particular attention to connecting all notes and observing all dynamics. Accents should be of the breath-accent variety, and sforzandos mark arrival points, and should not be over emphasized. Note that a variation on the theme of the piece is presented starting in m. Keep the original theme in mind as you play this, making sure that the 16th notes are smooth, even and not compressed.
Staccato marks under a slur indicated a connected but articulated style. Make the dynamic sweeps in m. Errata: None Performance Guide: In preparation for studying this etude, be sure that you can fluently play the G-flat major scale and the related E-flat harmonic and melodic minor scales.
Be very careful to observe the articulation marks: slur and tongue exactly as indicated.
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The piano dynamic at the start of the piece should grow quickly until the diminuendo in m. Stay strong until measure 25, and treat the piano as a subito piano. Keep subdividing quarter notes through the hemiolas of mm. The slight rit. It may be necessary to break a slur after the half-notes in m. The C-flat in m. Check with a tuner for the best intonation on your instrument. When you do this, you will convert the written eighth notes to dotted eights, helping to ensure that you play them long enough, while also allowing time to take a breath.
It might not look this way at first, but there are ample opportunities to breathe at the ends of phrases. Be sure to take a full, relaxed breath after the fermatas. Always bring out the grace notes. Make sure that they have full tone despite being quick and decorative. As they are ornamental, they come slightly before the beat. In the Encore Music Publishers edition, Dr. Jerry Young claims that the target tempo is beats per minute bpm , and we feel that bpm is an appropriate tempo range, keeping in mind that the eighth note gets the beat. The staccato notes contrast the slurred note groups.
Keep them crisp and articulate, but you do not need to exaggerate their shortness. Observe the written dynamics. Errata: No repeats. Pick up note to m. Play at a range of bpm beats per minute , in accordance with Dr. Jerry Young in the Encore Music Publishers edition. Multiply your tempo by two and then set your metronome, which is the sixteenth-note pulse.
The metronome is crucial to slow studies. Young recommends that you master the time and articulation elements first, playing the entire exercise at a moderate dynamic, before you introduce the written dynamics. Some of these markings are different from the horn edition of Michelle Stebleton, published by Carl Fischer, however, both sets work and contain concessions with regards to potentially segmenting the phrases.
I suggest following the breaths as marked in the King edition, taking additional breaths as needed and where possible. Try to take quickl relaxed breaths to keep the intention of the full phrases. Errata: Do not take the "D. Keep the Allegretto section moving, bouncy, and melodic.
To contrast the B-section, the opening should be articulate and declamatory. Keep the dolce section flowing and make a contrast in style between this and the A-section. This is within the ranges suggested by other editions. In the Carl Fischer horn edition this is No. Stebleton suggests a deeper breath after the 5th eighth note in m. For these numberings, I am not counting the anacrusis as a numbered measure. There are many ways to practice taking quick breaths. You can stop at each instance and take a full, deep breath. Then, over time, as you get used to that breathing pattern, try to take in the same amount of air faster in a beat, then half a beat, etc.
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